Thursday, June 24, 2010

Friday, June 18, 2010

Gopal Krishna Gokhale

Gopal Krishna Gokhale
Bal Gangadhar Tilak
Born: May 9, 1866 Kothluk, Ratnagiri Dist., Maharastra, India
Died: February 19, 1915 Bombay, India
Gopal Krishna Gokhale was born on May 9, 1866 in Kothapur, Maharashtra. He graduated from Elphinstone College, Bombay in 1884 at the age of 18. He was Assistant Master in the New English School in Pune. One of the founding members of Fergusson CollegeHe was also a social reformer. Gokhale worked with Mahadev Govind Ranade(Gokhale called him his guru) in Poona Sarvajanik Sabha of which Gokhale became the Secretary. Gokhale became Secretary of the Deccan Education Society. Political guru of Mahatma Gandhi; one of the pioneers of the Indian national movement; founder of the Servants of India Society. Gokhale pleaded for gradual reforms to ultimately attain Swaraj, or self-government, in India. Gokhale was a mentor to Mahatma Gandhi and Jinnah. In his autobiography, Gandhi calls Gokhale his mentor and guide
He delivered a public address on "India under the British Rule", which was highly appreciated.
Gokhale regularly contributed articles to Bal Gangadhar Tilak's weekly "Mahratta".
In 1905, Gokhale started a new society called "Servants of India Society".
Gokhale went to England to voice his concerns relating to the unfair treatment of the Indian people by the British government.
He founded the "Servants of India Society"-an organization dedicated to the cause of common people.

Thursday, June 17, 2010

Bal Gangadhar Tilak

Bal Gangadhar Tilak
Born: July 23, 1856
Died: August 1, 1920

Tilak was born on July 23, 1856 in Ratnagiri, Maharashtra. He was a Chitpavan Brahmin by caste. He was a social reformer, freedom fighter, national leader, and a scholar of Indian history, sanskrit, hinduism, mathematics and astronomy. Bal Gangadhar Tilak got his B.A. degree with a first class in mathematics. Tilak joined the Indian National Congress in 1890. Tilak was one of the first and strongest advocates of "Swaraj" (self-rule) in India. His slogan “Swaraj is my birthright and I shall have it” inspired millions of Indians. Tilak joined the Indian National Congress in 1890. In 1897, Bal Gangadhar Tilak was charged with writing articles instigating people to rise against the government and to break the laws and disturb the peace. He was sentenced to rigorous imprisonment for one and a half year. Tilak was arrested on the charges of sedition in 1906. After the trial, Tilak was sentenced to six years of imprisonment in Mandalay.
Tilak opposed the moderate views of Gopal Krishna Gokhale, and was supported by fellow Indian nationalists Bipin Chandra Pal in Bengal and Lala Lajpat Rai in Punjab

Father of Indian National Movement
Founded “Deccan Education Society”
formed Home Rule League in 1916 to attain the goal of Swaraj.
He started two weeklies, 'Kesari' and 'Mahratta'. 'Kesari' was Marathi weekly while 'Mahratta' was English weekly.
He launched Swadeshi Movement. A big 'Swadeshi Market' was opened in front of Tilak's house in Pune.
He build a separate organization called the 'Home Rule League'.
In 1894, he made Sarvajanik Ganeshotsav and shiva jayanthi as a social festival.

Published works
The Arctic Home in the Vedas.-1903
The Hindu philosophy of life, ethics and religion (published in 1887).
Vedic chronology and vedanga jyotisha.
Letters of Lokamanya Tilak, edited by M. D. Vidwans.
Selected documents of Lokamanya Bal Gangadhar Tilak, 1880-1920, edited by Ravindra Kumar.
Jedhe Shakawali (Editor)

Shahu Maharaj

Rajarshi Chatrapati Shahu Maharaj (26 July 1874 – 6 May 1922)

The first Maharaja of the Indian princely state of Kolhapur between 1884 and 1922.

Shahu was born as Yeshwantrao Ghatge, eldest son of Appasaheb Ghatge and Radhabai, He was adopted by Anandibai, widow of Raja Shivaji IV, in March 1884.

Social reform

Shahu Maharaj gave special importance to the education of the masses and introduced several programs for them.

Shahu's other initiatives included restricting Child marriage in his state

He long patronized the Satya Shodhak Samaj but later moved towards the Arya Samaj

He started separate hostels in Kolhapur for students from the Maratha, Lingayat, Panchal, Jain, Muslims, Shimpi, Devadnya, Vaishya, Dhor-Chambhar and Nabhik communities and the Miss Clark Boarding especially for the students from the untouchable (socially quarantined) communities.

He offered scholarships to the needy and intelligent students from the backward castes He made primary education compulsory and free for all in his Princely State.

His royal decree held up the cause of women’s education.

To abolish untouchability, he stopped the cruel system followed by many institutions to hold separate schools for the upper and lower castes in 1919.

He started Patil schools so that village heads could be good administrators.

In times when the study of Vedic literature was considered a domain of the Brahmins (higher caste Pundits), he established Vedic schools that taught the Vedas to the masses and Sanskrit schools for the propagation of the Sanskrit language.

He opposed caste discrimination and took many steps to abolish untouchability.

He introduced reservation for the untouchables in government jobs.

He issued a royal decree in his Princely State to treat all humans equal and to give equal access to the untouchables to public utilities like common wells, schools, hospitals and common buildings.

His commitment to abolish untouchability was such that he was even ready to give up his throne for the service of the dalit or lower class people.

He legalised inter caste marriages and discontinued the hereditary tenures (Watan) of revenue collectors (Kulkarni), infamous for exploiting the masses, as also the Mahar tenures that enslaved the Mahars (a lower caste).

In 1917 he legalised remarriages and widow remarriages in his Princely State.

He also introduced a law banning the practice of Devdasi


Wednesday, June 16, 2010

Mahatma Phule

Mahatma jyotiba Phule

Date of Birth :11th April 1827
Date of Death:28 Nov 1890

Married to Savitribai, the daughter of Khandoji Nevase at Naigaon

Member of Pune Muncipality 1876 to 1882
Felicitated by Duke of Connaught 2 March 1888
Felicitated by public and was honoured with the title of ' MAHATMA' 11 May 1888

Started school for girls of shudra and atishudra. 1848
Started girls school at Chiplunkar's wada 1851
Helped in the remarriage of widows. 1860
Started Infanticide Prohibition Home. 1863
Opened the well of his house to the lower castes
Started night school
Formation of 'Satya Shodhak Samaj'. 24 Sept. 1873

Published Books and works
1. Tritiya Ratna, 1855
2. Brahmananche Kasab,1869
3. Gulamgiri [ Slavery ] 1873
4. Shetkarayacha Aasud (Cultivator's Whipcord), July 1881
5. Satsar Ank 1, June 1885
6. Satsar Ank 2, October 1885
7. Ishara, October 1885
8. Gramjoshya sambhandi jahir kabhar 1886
9. Satyashodhak Samajokt Mangalashtakasah Sarva Puja-vidhi, 1887
10. Sarvajanik Satya Dharma Poostak 1889
11. Sarvajanic Satya Dharmapustak, 1891
12. Akhandadi Kavyarachana
13. Asprashyanchi Kaifiyat